APA Citing Standards

How to Cite ...

in-text referencing
Quiz

Plagiarism is the stealing of words, ideas, images, or creative works.

Plagiarism includes:

  • Copy and pasting someone else's work and pretending it is you own work
  • Copy and pasting someone else's work, quoting it at the time you use it, but not citing it in your bibliography
  • Paraphrasing someone else's work and and pretending it is you own work
  • Paraphrasing someone else's work, quoting it at the time you use it, but not citing it in your bibliography

Writing your Bibliography - Citing your Source

When you cite your source in a bibliography you are required to write it in a standardised way. 
At APHS we use the APA Citing style. 

We expect all students to follow this style when citing the material they use in any of their reports, assignments, etc.


Citing a Book - style rules and an example:

Author(s) / Date / Title of Book / Place of Publication / Publisher

EG:
Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993).
Star Trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books.

Holmberg, D., Orbuch, T., & Veroff, J. (2004). Thrice-told tales: Married couples tell their stories. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

All examples above sourced from http://www.library.cornell.edu/newhelp/res_strategy/citing/apa.html


Citing a Book Chapter - style rules and an example:

Author(s) / Date / Chapter / Title of Book / Pages / Place of Publication / Publisher

EG:
James, N. E. (1988). Chapter 3. Two sides of paradise: The Eden Myth according to Kirk and Spock. (pp. 219223). Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Stein, A. (1997). Sex after 'sexuality': From sexology to poststructuralism. In D. Owen (Ed.), Sociology after Postmodernism (pp. 158-172). London: Sage.

 

All examples above sourced from http://www.library.cornell.edu/newhelp/res_strategy/citing/apa.html


Citing an Encyclopedia Article - style rules and an example:

Author(s) / Date / Title of Article / Title of Book / Volume / Pages / Place of Publication /Publisher

EG:
Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The Encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390392). Danbury, CT: Grolier

 

All examples above sourced from http://www.library.cornell.edu/newhelp/res_strategy/citing/apa.html


Citing a Journal or Magazine or Newspaper Article - style rules and examples:

Author(s) or article title if author is not known / Date / Title of Article / Title of Periodical / Volume / Pages / Place of Publication / Publisher

EG:
Wilcox, R. V. (1991). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(2), pp5365., London, England

Dubeck, L. (1990). Science fiction aids science teaching. Physics Teacher, 28, pp316-318. USA

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). ppA3. Washington D.C. The Washington Post

The disability gulag [Letter to the editor]. (2003, December 14). The New York Times Magazine, 28. pp12-16

 

All examples above sourced from http://www.library.cornell.edu/newhelp/res_strategy/citing/apa.html


Citing an audio-visual media - style rules and an example:

Author(s) or media title if author is not known / Date / Title of Media / Volume / Media Type / Place of Publication / Publisher

EG:

Audio Recording

Costa, P.T., Jr. (Speaker). (1988).  Personality, continuity, and changes of adult life [Cassette Recording No. 207-43388AB]. Washington, DC: Americn Pyschological Association.

Motion Picture

Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Motion Picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

Television Broadcast

Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.

Television Series

Miller, R. (Producer). (1989). The Mind [Television series]. New York: WNET.

Music Recording

Shocked, M. (1992). Over the Waterfall. On Arkansas traveler [CD]. New York: PolyGram Music

 

All examples above sourced from http://www.library.cornell.edu/newhelp/res_strategy/citing/apa.html


Electronic Media and Online Sources (WWW)

APA's recommendations for citing electronic media include:

  1. Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited -- whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages;
  2. Provide addresses that work.
  3. At a minimum, a reference of an Internet source should provide a document or title description, a "date" (either the date of publication, update, or date of retrieval), and an address (in Internet terms, a URL).
  4. Whenever possible, identify the authors of the document as well." (Cornell University)

Author(s) or article title if author is not known / Date / Title / Media Type / Date retrieved / WWW Location / URL / Other Information

A Professional web site

Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribbleations review. Retrieved October 8, 2003, from Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club Web site: http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep/503r.html

American Psychological Association. (1999, June 1). Electronic preference formats recommended by the American Psychological Association. Retrieved July 18, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.apa.org/journals/webref.html

An email message

L. A. Chafez. March 28, 1997. Personal communication [email]

Internet article based on an printed document (eg a .pdf for .doc) (it exists in both print and online)

VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates Retrieved July 18, 2004 [Electronic version]. from Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, pp117-123. http://www.elsevier.com/wps/

Article in an Internet-only journal

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3 , Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from APA Journals http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html

Article from an online encyclopedia

Bergman, P. G. & Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica Online. (1994-1999). Relativity. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 4, 1999 from Encyclopedia Britannica Online on the World Wide Web: http://search.eb.com/bol/topic?eu=117376&sctn=1

Article from an Internet Database

Mershon, D. H. (1998, NovemberDecember). Star Trek on the brain: Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86, 585. Retrieved July 29, 2005, from Expanded Academic ASAP database. http://www.cdlib.org/inside/resources/choosecampus/eaasap.html

Article available on university program or department site

Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures . Retrieved August 24, 2005, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html

 

Most examples above sourced from http://www.library.cornell.edu/newhelp/res_strategy/citing/apa.html


In-text Referencing.

When using other people's work you have to cite your source in two places:

  1. In the Bibliography. Insturctions and example of how to do this are located above.
  2. As close as possible to the location where you used their work. This section deals with this.

Citing a work with one named author

Your text or quotation here (Clinton, 2004).
OR
As Clinton (2004) stated, your text continues.

Citing a work with two to six authors or editors as authors

Your text or quotation here (Coward & Maguire, 1999, p. 45).
OR
According to Coward and Maguire (1999, p. 45), your text continues.

Citing a work with same last name as another citing in your Reference List

Your text or quotation here (A. Stein, 1997).
OR
As reported by A. Stein (1997), your text continues.

Citing a work with no author named and/or undated

Your text or quotation here (NCAA Committee on Sportsmanship, n.d.).
OR
According to the NCAA Committee on Sportsmanship and Ethical Conduct (n.d.), your text continues.4

 

All examples above sourced from: http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/APAstyle.pdf


Bibliography.

American Psychological Association (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Retrieved January 2006. from Cornell University:  http://www.library.cornell.edu/newhelp/res_strategy/citing/apa.html

J.B. (2004). APA Style Citations (American Psychological Association). Retrieved January 06, 2006. [Electronic version] from University of California, Berkeley, Moffitt Library. http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/APAstyle.pdf